Agricultural Field Experiments Design And Analysis Pdf – A case study comparing the effects of microplastics from bottle caps collected in two cities on Triticum aestivum (wheat)
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Agricultural Field Experiments Design And Analysis Pdf
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Agriculture In India
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Ruth Anna Ganokrus 1, Rena Nakamura 2, Kota Yoshino 2, Masaru Homma 3, Tetsuya Doi 4, Yoshikuni Yoshida 4, * and Akira Tani 5
Applications Of Statistical Experimental Designs To Improve Statistical Inference In Weed Management
Graduate Program in Sustainable Development Science – Global Leadership Initiative Environmental Research Building, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
Received: 5 June 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 6 July 2021 / Published: 10 July 2021
Agroelectric systems consisting of photovoltaic panels placed over agricultural crops have recently attracted increasing attention. Interest in these systems led us to investigate their effects on rice crops. Various factors affecting rice yield, including fertilizer use, temperature, and solar radiation, were directly observed and measured to assess the variation in shading rates of PV systems installed on rice crops. The results show that the upper limit of the allowable shading level for agroelectric systems ranges from 27 to 39%, which supports at least 80% of the rice crop, a condition set by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for these systems. If such systems are applied to rice fields in Japan at 28% density, they can generate 284 million MWh/year. According to 2018 estimates, this corresponds to about 29% of Japan’s total electricity demand. This prediction points to the potential of agroelectric systems for efficient land use and sustainable energy production.
After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the shutdown of several nuclear power plants, Japan’s energy imports increased significantly in 2015, reaching 85 million tons of natural gas and 190 million tons of coal . Although burning coal remains the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity generation sector, there is a trend to sell coal-fired power projects in line with the Paris Agreement and its goal of limiting global warming to 1.5-2. °C [2, 3]. Japan plays an important role in maintaining the global coal import market . The demand for the creation of an alternative energy supply structure in the country has promoted the promotion and use of renewable energy resources, which favorably reduce the impact on carbon dioxide and energy supply security .
Pdf) Experimental Design And Biometric Research. Toward Innovations
In 2012, the government introduced a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme to provide additional income to people producing renewable energy [ 1 , 6 ] and promote decarbonization through large-scale renewable energy development [ 3 ]. This scheme increased renewable energy capacity, especially solar capacity , which reached 33.50 GW in 2017 after the introduction of the FIT . As renewable energy capacity has increased over a decade , the Japanese government announced plans in 2013 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 46% by 2030, a significant increase over its previous commitment to reduce emissions by 26%, becoming for a carbon neutral society (zero greenhouse gas emissions) until 2050 .
In Japan, rooftop photovoltaic panels and mega solar power plants are mainly used to produce photovoltaic energy. The limited area available for the installation of PV panels will be a critical challenge in increasing the deployment of PV systems to meet greenhouse gas emission targets. One of the solutions to increase the diversification of the portfolio of renewable energy resources is the introduction of agroelectric systems [11, 12]. The combination of photovoltaics and crops is widely known as agrovoltaics, a system that improves agricultural productivity while reducing environmental impact . In addition, photovoltaic panels have been used as a roof for greenhouse structures in several developed countries [13, 14, 15].
Ponce et al.  confirmed that agrovoltaics can have a lower environmental impact than using land for energy and food production separately. However, Dupraz et al.  expressed concern about the long-term effects of agrovoltaics on monoculture crops, proposing instead a diverse mixed cropping system. Solar energy derived from agro-cells can have the following benefits: increase the economic value of land by more than 30% , increase the opportunities for farmers to obtain long-term profitability , and improve the environment . ], and an increase in total land productivity by 60-70% . This approach also overcomes the problem of low power density of photovoltaic systems by extending the system to rural areas [20, 21]. Additionally, a previous agrovoltaic land use assessment in India yielded an energy potential of 16,000 GWh/year, which means that agrovoltaic grape farms could serve 15 million people in India .
The development of this promising cumulative PV installation capacity is contributing to the expansion of agroelectricity production and efficient land use . Investments in renewable energy sources, especially photovoltaics, have increased significantly, while energy demand and carbon emissions related to climate change have become more significant. As the cost of photovoltaic systems decreases and their capacity increases, there is a need for research on the effects of large-scale solar installations . As integrated photovoltaic systems that alleviate both energy and food shortages , agrocells can be the most optimal means of sustainable development in agricultural areas [12, 25].
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A major problem facing these systems is the physiological limitations they can impose on crop productivity and quality due to shading . The amount of light is an essential component of crop production, which links the rate of photosynthesis and morphological processes of plants to their growth and development [27, 28]. The reduction of solar radiation intercepted by crops due to panel shading can negatively affect harvested fruit quality unless carefully managed .
Therefore, the use of agroelectric systems requires changes in the shading effects of the system and the use of suitable crops in swing shade [17, 30]. In addition to shading, the light requirements of each crop used in agrovoltaics must be carefully selected and controlled . Therefore, the effects of shading should be taken into account when studying possible agroelectric conditions.
In addition, extreme weather conditions  associated with climate change , such as high temperature and humidity, often damage crops [34, 35]. Therefore, it is preferable to use agroelements in a more open structure than in a greenhouse, because sufficient air circulation under an open structure does not allow the panels to significantly affect air temperature and steam, unlike those in a greenhouse [17, 36]. .
Although previous studies on agroelectric systems have mainly focused on greenhouse crops such as tomato [15, 37, 38], lettuce [28, 30, 31, 39, 40, 41] and cucumber [30, 38, 40], as also for several studies. on outdoor field crops such as maize [23, 36, 39] and grapes , this study investigates the application of agrovoltaics in rice fields. In previous studies, shading experiments in rice fields were only conducted for a limited period of time [35, 42]. Therefore, no previous study has examined the effect of PV shading on rice yield throughout the rice growing cycle. Although some studies have investigated the negative effects of shading on crops integrated with agroelectrics, none have reported the effects on rice yield and quality. However, the importance of shading speed in the growing process is emphasized by the application of agroelectric systems.
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The time required to cover the costs of photovoltaic cells depends on the selling price of electricity determined by the FIT scheme . As the selling price of FIT electricity has decreased over time, cost savings have been a barrier to the adoption of agro-electricity. Agrovoltaics can create additional land footprints on farms, but the dual use of these agricultural lands can also increase the economic value of the land . Agrovoltaics can also negatively impact the physical and visual aspects of the land, obscuring landscape views if care is not taken.
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