Design Of Experiments Taguchi Method – A simple method to identify dominant fouling mechanisms during membrane filtration based on piecewise multiple linear regression
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Design Of Experiments Taguchi Method
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Optimization Of Multiple Responses In The Lost Wax Process Using Taguchi Method And Grey Relational Analysis
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Optimization of operating conditions using the Taguchi method to remove colloidal substances from wastewater from the production of recycled paper and cardboard
Taguchi Method For Experimental Design
By Mayko Rannany S. Sousa, Jaime Lora-García, María-Fernanda López-Pérez*, Asunción Santafé-Moros and José M. Gozálvez-Zafrilla
Research Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM) Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Plaza Ferrándiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy, Spain
Received: May 19, 2020 / Reviewed: July 10, 2020 / Accepted: July 22, 2020 / Posted: July 29, 2020
The optimization of the ultrafiltration (UF) process to remove colloidal substances from wastewater treated by a paper mill was investigated in this study. The effect of four operating parameters in a UF system (transmembrane pressure (TMP), cross-flow velocity (CFV), temperature and molecular weight limit (MWCO)) on the average permeate flux (Jv), demand chemical oxygen for organic matter (DOC), rejection rate and cumulative flux decrease (SFD) were investigated by a robust experimental design using the Taguchi method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for an L
Parameter Optimization In Milling Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (gfrp) Using Doe Taguchi Method
An orthogonal table was used to determine the importance of individual factors, that is, to determine which factor has the most and least influence on the UF response variables. Percentage (P%) contribution analysis indicated that TMP and MWCO have the largest contribution to the average permeate flux and SFD. Regarding the COD rejection rate, the results showed that MWCO has the highest contribution, followed by CFV. Taguchi’s method and tool concept were used to optimize multiple response variables. The optimum conditions were found to be a transmembrane pressure of 2.0 bar, a cross flow velocity of 1.041 m/s, a temperature of 15°C and a MWCO of 100 kDa. Validation experiments under optimal conditions achieved Jv, COD rejection rate and SFD results of 81.15 L m
, 43.90% and 6.01, respectively. Additionally, SST and turbidity decreased by approximately 99% and 99.5%, respectively, and a reduction in particle size from approximately 458-1281 nm to 12.71-24.36 nm was achieved. . Field emission scanning electron microscopy images under optimal conditions showed that membrane fouling occurs at the highest rate during the first 30 minutes of UF. The results demonstrate the validity of the approach of using Taguchi’s method and the concept of utility to obtain the optimal membrane conditions for wastewater treatment using a reduced number of experiments.
The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is ranked as the world’s third largest consumer of fresh water  and a major producer of wastewater containing various organic and inorganic pollutants. According to the type of process used in paper production, the integration between production and environmental protection is one of the main topics in the paper industry.
According to the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) , Europe is the second largest producer of paper and board with 22.7% (91.39 million tonnes) of world production, making it the one of the most important industries in the European economic sector. . The paper industry occupies an important place in the Spanish economy, as Spain is one of the European leaders in paper recycling, with 84% of the raw materials used by the paper industry containing recycled paper . However, we cannot forget that water is also an essential raw material for the production of paper and board, and wastewater treatment is an essential part of the process . In order to minimize the amount of fresh water used and the volume of wastewater discharged, the European Commission has outlined the best available techniques to be adopted by the P&P industry .
Techno Economic Optimization Of Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System Combined With Csp Plant Using Doe: Design Of Experiment Technique And Taguchi Method
A number of conventional processes have already been used to treat different types of paper mill wastewater, including coagulation and flocculation , adsorption [6, 7], advanced oxidation [8, 9] and membrane filtration [10, 11, 12, 1.3]. It is important to mention that paper mills have their own wastewater treatment plants, but some water treatment methods commonly used for P&P are not environmentally efficient: eg: coagulation/flocculation Using inorganic coagulants creates removal problems and conventional aerobic processes have not been effective in removing color or recalcitrant compounds [14, 15]. This deficiency can also make it impossible to reuse water in the papermaking process. Plants must therefore improve their treatment plants to reach the polluting loads authorized by the regulations in force and/or to reuse process water.
Membrane separation technology has received increasing attention as an alternative method for post-treatment of paper mill wastewater. Some treatment methods, such as nanofiltration, ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis, have recently been used in paper mills to treat secondary and tertiary effluents by external biological treatment [7, 16, 17, 18]. The main advantages of membrane separation processes are their scalability, low installation costs and ease of use. However, their technical and financial responsibilities must be carefully considered for each specific process.
Ultrafiltration is an attractive process for paper mill wastewater treatment and can be used as an advanced tertiary treatment to remove suspended solids and dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) during paper mill wastewater treatment to facilitate the reuse of treated wastewater and reduce consumption of fresh water [19, 20]. What makes it so appealing is that most of the pollutants consist of high molecular weight compounds and these are easily removed by UF [10, 21].
However, membrane fouling remains a limiting factor for the use and large-scale application of UF in papermaking applications. This fouling leads to a strong decrease in the flow of permeate and therefore changes in membrane selectivity [10, 22, 23]. Membrane fouling also increases processing costs due to repeated plant shutdowns to clean and wash the membranes . Previous studies have shown that the main fouling in membranes used for waste water from the paper industry are DCS including fatty acids, resin acids, lignins and traces of sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. [19, 25]. Currently, this treatment technology can only be used to filter paperboard mill effluent that has been pre-treated and still does not meet emission standards .
Robust Design (taguchi Method)
Statistical experimental design that includes Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques can be used to examine the effects of all possible factor interactions at once, while performing as few experiments as possible. A review of the literature revealed that an increasing number of studies are being conducted using DoE approaches in the field of membrane technologies to optimize operating conditions [10, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32]. DoE approaches for robust design include the Taguchi method which combines mathematical and statistical techniques to arrive at a particular design of experiments with an orthogonal network (OA) to study multiple factors with a small number of experiments. This saves time and money by reducing the number of experiments needed for the investigation . It is worth mentioning that this approach is becoming popular because it is easy to adopt and uses an efficient method to optimize the operating parameters.
This approach also makes it possible to study the influence of each individual factor on the response variables, as well as the effects of the interactions between the factors on the response variables, i.e. all the operational conditions vary simultaneously according to the design chart. This helps to determine which factors have the most and least influence, as well as the optimal level for each factor in an OA . Additionally, in many UF approaches, it is necessary to consider the use of multiple response optimization, since process performance is often evaluated using multiple quality (response) characteristics. In this case, Taguchi’s method and
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