Examples Using The Scientific Method

Examples Using The Scientific Method – . If you want to answer a question from a scientific point of view, you use the scientific method. If research does not use this method, it does not use science.

The scientific method is a relatively simple process that involves asking a question, providing an answer, and then testing that answer. Although the general process is often the same, the specific details and how it is implemented vary depending on many factors. You’ll find the method described and illustrated in different ways, but it always follows this general path:

Examples Using The Scientific Method

Note that theory is the last part of the process. In science, the word theory has a different meaning than we use in everyday life. This is important, and we’ll get to it later.

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This process begins with observing something around us. For example, “the sky is blue.”

The next major step is to come up with a hypothesis or proposed answer to this question. However, before doing so, you must:

After learning all about the previous research on the question, you can make a recommendation. In everyday conversation, you would call this a theory, e.g. My theory is that water droplets in the atmosphere make the sky blue. In science, you don’t call your idea a theory, you call it a hypothesis. Hopefully this theory will come later (see below).

Now we need to learn some rules. A valid hypothesis must meet certain criteria or it will not pass the process. In order to prioritize, here are some important rules and recommendations:

Solved Match The Part Of The Scientific Method To Its

Scientific experiments are based on experiments. Experiments are conducted under as tightly controlled conditions as possible. Experiments must consider variables and factors that influence outcomes. Everything should be fully documented.

There are many rules about testing. Science students spend years learning to design and conduct experiments that are fair, accurate, and transparent.

Test results should be as specific as possible, leaving little room for doubt or conflicting interpretations. Anyone can repeat the same test and get the same result.

The results should draw clear conclusions and then be submitted to other scientists for peer review. Part of this process may raise more questions and challenges that need to be addressed.

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If the findings pass peer review, they can be communicated to a wider academic audience and compared and contrasted with competing hypotheses and theories.

If this hypothesis is taken too far, it may be accepted as a theory. As mentioned above, this is the last part of the basic process. A scientific theory is an end goal—a hypothesis that is accepted by the scientific community as a valid explanation for something in the natural world.

So, never say something is “just a theory.” In a scientific context, it is very popular to call something a theory.

Ideally, this new theory could explain much more than just the observations that prompted this study. The way scientists find answers to questions and solve problems is called the scientific method. Scientists use it to find answers to questions and solve problems. . This method involves making

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This in turn leads to additional observations, hypotheses, and experiments in an iterative cycle (Figure 1.4 “Scientific Method”).

As shown in this diagram, the scientific method involves observing, hypothesizing, and designing experiments. A scholar can enter the cycle at any time.

Describe characteristics or events in a way that does not rely on numbers. Examples of qualitative observations include: In winter, outdoor temperatures are colder, table salt crystals are harder, sulfur crystals are yellow, and dissolving a penny in liquid nitric acid produces a blue solution and a brown gas.

. Examples of quantitative observations include: Crystalline sulfur has a melting point of 115.21°C, and 35.9 grams of table salt—its chemical name is sodium chloride—dissolves in 100 grams of water at 20°C. Regarding the question of the dinosaur extinction, the initial observations were less: iridium concentrations in sediments from 66 million years ago were 20 to 160 times higher than normal.

The Scientific Method Throughout History

After deciding to learn more about an observation or set of observations, scientists typically begin research by making testable explanatory hypotheses for the scientific observation that put the research into testable form. , a tentative explanation for the observation(s). This assumption may not be correct, but it does test the scientist’s understanding of the system being studied. For example, the observation that we experience alternating periods of light and darkness based on the observed movements of the sun, moon, clouds, and shadows is consistent with one of two hypotheses: (1) Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours; ; It rotates and is exposed to alternating light. one side to the Sun, or (2) the Sun orbits the Earth every 24 hours. Appropriate tests can be chosen from one of these two options. For the extinction of the dinosaurs, the hypothesis is that the impact of a large extraterrestrial object caused their extinction. Unfortunately (or fortunately), this hypothesis doesn’t lend itself to direct testing through any obvious experiments, but scientists can gather additional data to confirm or disprove it.

After scientists form a hypothesis, they conduct experiments to test its validity. Experiments are systematic observations or measurements, preferably conducted under controlled conditions, that is, conditions in which the variable of interest is distinctly different from other variables. Ideally, systematic observation or measurement

Condition – under what conditions the individual variable represents the change. For example, in our extinction scenario, iridium concentrations around the world were measured and compared. A properly designed and executed experiment allows the scientist to determine whether the original hypothesis is correct. Experience often shows that assumptions are incorrect or need to be changed. More experimental data is then collected and analyzed, at which point the scientist may consider the results to be sufficiently repeatable (ie, reliable) to be a verbal or mathematical description of the phenomenon that allows a general law to be predicted. says What happens and why it happens. , a verbal or mathematical description of a general predictable phenomenon. A law is simple

. An example of this law is the law of exact proportions, which states that the masses of the elements in a chemical substance are always in the same ratio. , discovered by the French scientist Joseph Proust (1826-1754), proposed that the masses of the elements of a chemical substance are always in the same ratio. So sodium chloride (table salt) always has the same mass of sodium and chlorine, in this case it is 39.34% sodium and 60.66% chlorine, while sucrose (table sugar) is always 42.11% carbon, 6.48% hydrogen and 51.41%. Hydrogen. Mass % oxygen. You will learn in Chapter 12, “Solids,” that some solids do not strictly follow the exact law of proportions. (To review common units of measurement, see Basic Skill 1 in Section 1.9, “Basic Skill 1.”) The exact proportionality law should seem obvious—we want the composition of sodium chloride to be constant, but the US cap. The US Patent Office did not accept it as a reality until the early 20th century.

The Science Of Everyday Life

Occurrence is an expressive theory that seeks to explain why nature behaves in a certain way. He tries to explain

The way nature works, the rules are unlikely to change much over time unless major experimental errors are discovered. In contrast, a theory is by definition complete and incomplete, evolving over time to explain new facts. For example, one theory advanced to explain the extinction of the dinosaurs is that the Earth was occasionally hit by small and medium-sized asteroids, and these collisions would have had disastrous consequences for the survival of most species. This theory has never been proven, but it is consistent with most of the evidence collected to date. Figure 1.5 “Summary of how the scientific method was used to develop the asteroid impact theory to explain the extinction of the dinosaurs” summarizes the application of the scientific method in this way.

Figure 1.5 A summary of how the scientific method was used to develop the asteroid impact theory to explain the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Classify each sentence as a law, theory, experiment, hypothesis, qualitative observation, or quantitative observation.

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Since scientists can enter the cycle represented by the “scientific method” shown in Figure 1.4 at any time, the practical application of the scientific method to different disciplines takes many forms. For example, a scientist may begin with hypotheses formed by studying the work of others in the field rather than through direct observation.

It’s important to remember that scientists frame hypotheses in familiar terms because it’s hard to posit something that’s never been seen or imagined.

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