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Exhibition Hall Design Standards Pdf
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Zhanzhi Wan Zhanzhi Wan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * , Tiejun Zhou Tiejun Zhou Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1 , Zhili Tang Zhili Tang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1 , Pre Pan Scilit Pan Y . org Google Scholar View Publications 2 and Lingfei Zhang Lingfei Zhang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1
Received: September 13, 2021 / Revised: November 27, 2021 / Accepted: November 29, 2021 / Published: November 30, 2021
Rational placement of evacuation signs is an important tool to improve evacuation efficiency in exhibition halls of exhibition buildings. In exhibition halls, stands are often arranged and changed for different exhibitions, which means that escape routes are not defined. Most people don’t even know the showroom. In the event of a fire, earthquake or other emergency, people should quickly escape to a safety exit and follow the instructions of evacuation signs. The existing evacuation signs are placed according to the standards and the experience of the designers, the location of the signs is fixed and does not change with the change of the cabin layout, which means that the signs can be easily covered by the cabins, which affects the identification of the signs. Based on the visibility of evacuation signs, this paper proposes an intelligent layout design method for evacuation signs that can be adapted to different forms of exhibition spaces. The main goal of this method is to cover the line of sight of all escape routes with a minimum number of evacuation signs. Due to the fact that the actual visibility range of evacuation signs is blocked by the cabin in three-dimensional space, this method uses a genetic algorithm to find the optimal number and best location of evacuation signs. Finally, we provide a case to test the effectiveness of the method. This intelligent evacuation sign placement design can improve the management ability of evacuation signs in exhibition halls and improve evacuation efficiency.
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Recently, the development of exhibition buildings shows a trend of increasing scale and complexity . The exhibition hall is an important part of the exhibition hall . During the exhibition, the stands are arranged according to the theme of the exhibition and the content of the exhibition, which differ significantly and lead to irregular evacuation routes [3, 4]. In addition, there are various visitors who mainly come for the first time, do not know the environment of the exhibition hall and crowd the hall during the exhibition. In the event of a fire, terrorist attack, earthquake or other emergency, they must quickly flee to a safety exit . Reasonable placement of evacuation signs can effectively improve evacuation efficiency , but the placement of existing evacuation signs in exhibition halls is done according to relevant laws, standards and the experience of designers. Evacuation signs placed on the walls or at the safety exits are directly visible in the empty exhibition hall before the stands are set up (if there is no exhibition). However, after the exhibit is installed, some clearance signs may be obscured by booths, and visitors may not be able to effectively recognize the signs [7, 8] (Figures 1 and 2). The placement of evacuation signs cannot flexibly adapt to the variations of the exhibition hall layout, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of the effective control of evacuation signs  and does not promote the safe evacuation of people in the exhibition hall. .
Evacuation signs fulfill the role of conveying evacuation instructions in the exhibition area, and their effectiveness is affected by both the visibility of the signs and the legibility of the content. Currently, laws, standards and related studies, such as Exhibition Building Design Regulations (JGJ 218-2010) and Building Fire Safety Design Regulations (GB50016-2014), mainly focus on passwords , graphics [11, 12], color. [13, 14], size , brightness characteristics [16, 17] and intelligent evacuation control systems [18, 19] to solve the problem of legibility of evacuation signs, but not much research has been devoted. are evacuation signs “visible” signals. In practice, many evacuation signs are often installed formally, blindly and arbitrarily, ignoring the relationship between the arrangement of the stalls and the visibility of the evacuation signs in three-dimensional space.
The needs of evacuation behavior are closely related to the effectiveness of evacuation sign management, so it is necessary to ensure that people can recognize the evacuation signs at any point of the evacuation routes, so that people can quickly reach the safety exit . Based on visibility, this paper presents an intelligent evacuation sign arrangement method that can be adapted to different booth layouts in the exhibition hall. The priority goal is the best minimum placement of evacuation signs and complete visibility of evacuation routes in the showroom. In addition, we present a computer model to determine the effective visibility range of evacuation signs to compensate for the fact that previous studies only considered two-dimensional planes. This is done to increase the rationality and feasibility of the layout method, fully considering the relationship between the height and scale changes of the cabins in the range of visibility of evacuation signs in three-dimensional space. The structure of the work is as follows: Chapter 2 summarizes the current state and shortcomings of existing research with a literature review; Section 3 describes the intelligent design method of evacuation sign arrangement for different exhibition areas; Section 4 conducts a case study to test the reliability and validity of the label layout model; and Section 5 concludes the paper.
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The visibility of evacuation signs is a necessary prerequisite for the acceptable placement of evacuation signs . People must know and understand cues before they can make evacuation behavior decisions based on cues [ 22 , 23 ]. Visibility emphasizes visual accessibility, ie. the accessibility or visibility of a sign from one or more places [24, 25]. It is an important indicator of whether a signal is visible . The visibility of display signals is usually expressed by the visible area or visibility range, which is the range of the spatial area in which a person can visually obtain information about an object [8, 27, 28].
The location and number of evacuation signs significantly affect the visibility of evacuation information. According to ISO 16069:2017 (Graphic symbols – Safety signs – Safety indication systems) signs are classified according to their height into high, medium and low placement. Low evacuation signs are usually placed on the floor or slightly above the floor. High evacuation signs must be installed at ceiling height or at least 1.8 m from floor level. Khorasan  and Fu et al.  concluded that high evacuation signs have a positive effect on the choice of escape routes in large construction sites. Two  further divided the signs into boundary signs and internal signs according to the plane position of the evacuation sign. In the early and middle evacuation stages, internal signals play a key role in the exhibition area, and stressed people can follow guides to find the boundaries, walls and exits of the safety zone and quickly escape to the safety exit. late evacuation period in the direction of the border mark.
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