Master's Degree In Instructional Design And Technology Online – Non-formal education includes eight components (external), which can be classified according to four factors.
Informal learning is defined as “planning and organizing on a small scale in terms of learning context, learning support, learning time and learning objectives”.
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It differs from formal learning, informal learning, and self-directed learning in that it does not have a specific goal in terms of learning outcomes, but rather operates from the student’s perspective (e.g., to solve a problem). Informal learning strategies include trial and error or hands-on learning, modeling, feedback, and reflection.
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For learners, these heuristics include language construction, socialization, culture, and play. Informal learning is a form of continuous learning that is promoted through participation or creative learning, as opposed to the traditional view of teacher-led learning. According to estimates, 70-90 percent of adult education takes place informally and outside educational institutions.
The term is often associated with non-formal education and self-directed learning. It is widely used in the context of corporate training and education in terms of Return on Investment (ROI) or Return on Learning (ROL). It is also used more broadly to refer to systolic education in relation to the civil system or the informal system. Blended informal and informal learning refers to learning methods that occur organically outside of traditional teacher-led programs, such as reading books of your own choosing, participating in self-study programs, studying materials and performance support systems, practicing skills, receiving coaching or mentoring, to name a few. , seeking advice from peers or participating in communities of practice. Informal education is common in societies where people have the opportunity to attend and participate in social activities.
The mentioned benefits of non-formal education are flexibility and adaptability to learning needs, direct application of learning and quick resolution of (work-related) problems.
The origins of non-formal education can be traced back to John Dewey’s theory of experiential learning.
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American philosopher Mary Parker Follett expanded the context of informal learning from school to all aspects of everyday life and described learning as a continuous life activity. Based on this work of Dewey and Follett, the American educator Edward K. Lindemann first used the term “informal education.”
In 1950, this term was introduced by Malcolm Knowles, who published his work “Informal education of adults”.
Marsick and Watkins take this approach and take their definition a step further. They start with organizational learning and call these learning processes informal or not formally organized and funded institutions.
As an example of a broader approach, Livingstone’s definition focuses on autodidactic and self-directed learning, with particular emphasis on the learner’s self-expression of the learning process.
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Livingstone explains that explicit informal learning differs from tacit informal learning and socialization in that the individual wants to learn in this environment and creates the conditions for learning by putting himself in situations or interacting with others.
As mentioned above, non-formal education is mixed with formal education. Non-formal education is used to describe organized learning outside the formal education system, short-term, voluntary and under limited conditions.
Informal learning occurs in a variety of structured learning environments such as swimming lessons, community sports programs, and conference-style workshops.
The work of Decius 2020 suggests that non-formal education is an inferior form of education and not similar to formal education, using the following example: A student acquires language skills informally through voluntary adult education. The course Depending on the level of requirements, it differs little or not at all from a regular university education in terms of structure, continuity and support of learning. The only difference here is that the students take the course as part of their “work” (study), while the student volunteer studies in their spare time. So, the difference between formal and informal education lies in the social-normative-educational-theoretical distinction.
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Informal education, as Shchugursky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to identify when studying Fomon. He proposed three forms: self-directed learning, emergent learning, and socialization or systematic learning. They differ from each other in terms of awareness and understanding during learning. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and active; Marcyk and Watkins (1990) define deep learning as the spontaneous result of doing something else, unconsciously, but after practice she or he realizes that some learning has taken place. And finally, socialization or systematic learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we may later recognize this learning as “retrospective”) (Marsick & Watkins, 1990, p. 6) — p. 36
In 2012, Bennett expanded on Shugurski’s 2000 Informal Learning theory by recommending four methods of informal learning.
Drawing on the literature on implicit processing, she defines integrative learning as “a learning process that combines the deliberate processing of tacit knowledge with the active acquisition of learning products and visual imagery.”
And she theorizes two possible subprocesses: knowledge transfer and knowledge subversion, in which students with limited access must draw knowledge.
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For a significant difference from accidental learning, scientists say that informal learning can be considered conscious, but in which the learner does not set a learning goal, but instead has a desire to act.
On the other hand, if the student has a learning goal in mind and dispassionately pursues that goal, this is self-directed learning.
People in many Native American communities learn by observing and participating in the daily life of their local communities and families. Psychology professor Barbara Rogoff and her colleagues describe ways in which children in local communities can learn by observing and participating in community needs, showing willingness to contribute, taking on important roles, and developing a sense of belonging to their community.
This learning experience is based on the involvement of the child’s community and the child’s perspective. This informal learning allows the child to participate in social activities, giving them the opportunity to learn through immersion.
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Learning by Watching (LOPI) is an informal model of learning in many Native American communities.
Children can participate in many daily community activities with adults. For example, it is a process in which children learn slash-and-burn agriculture by persevering and contributing as much as possible.
What should be paid attention to is the child’s motivation and sense of responsibility for family-friendly activities. Many indigenous communities offer children opportunities for self-sufficiency and allow them to explore and learn without coercion. The joint contribution is very brave and valuable.
Both children and adults actively participate in shared delicacies. Their roles as learner and expert are dynamic, while the viewer participates in the active assembly.
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Child labor combined with play occupies an important place in Indian childhood and development. The relationship between a Navajo girl who helps her mother weave and later becomes a master weaver herself illustrates how the child’s presence and availability of these activities enable her to learn by watching.
The child begins on the periphery, observing and imitating others before moving into the room for supervised and guided activities. The example of a 2-year-old Mexican girl participating in a hole-digging project with her mother highlights children’s motivation to help, observe, and share the activity with family and community.
Work is part of a child’s development from childhood, ranging from simple tasks mixed with play to various important tasks.
Everyday situations create opportunities for culturally significant activities and active interaction, which contributes to the child’s development.
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A Chilihuani child perceives its environment as a place of respect and learns by sight. Many of them become shepherds through informal education through observation.
A child in Nicaragua often learns to work the land or be a street vendor while other people are doing it in their community.
These activities provide opportunities for learning and development through everyday experiential forms of social learning, rather than a deliberate curriculum, and create a relaxed environment in which children’s social interactions and behaviors take place. Informal education for children in Native American communities can be accomplished through child labor.
Given the cultural differences between the traditional Native American and European American middle classes, the spread of nonverbal communication can be seen as dependent on the meaning of Asakan in each culture. In mainstream middle-class culture, success in school and at work comes from competition and work for personal gain.
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Traditional Native American learning and teaching practices prioritize harmony and cooperation over self-interest. In order to achieve mutual respect in the classroom, Native American culture relies heavily on non-verbal communication.
An example of the use of non-verbal behavior as a means of learning can be seen in the Chilihuni culture. A child in this community learns about growing crops by observing their own actions.
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