Methods Of Teaching Biology In Secondary Schools

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Methods Of Teaching Biology In Secondary Schools

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Pdf) Teaching Methods In Biology Promoting Biodiversity Education

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Received: October 31, 2016 / Revised: December 7, 2016 / Accepted: December 14, 2016 / Published: December 22, 2016

There are very few studies on the importance of teaching methods in biological education and environmental education including outdoor education to promote sustainability at primary and secondary school levels and pre-teacher education. The material was selected using keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006-2016. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. In total, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The focus of the analysis was teaching methods, learning environment, knowledge and thinking skills, psychological skills, emotions and attitudes, and assessment methods. In addition, the characteristics of good methods are examined and their teaching effect is emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to promote sustainable learning in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those where students worked in groups and actively participated in the learning process. Research points to the value of teaching methods that provide good introductions and supportive instructions that include active participation and interaction.

Effect Of Computer Assisted Teaching Strategy On Students’ Academic Achievement And Motivation In Biology In Public Secondary Schools In Baringo County, Kenya

Biological education; sustainable education; environmental education; education for sustainable development; study abroad; elementary schools; secondary schools; pre-service teacher education; Literature review

One of the global goals for the future is to build a sustainable society [1]. A sustainable society is seen as a society that has achieved sustainable development through a process called sustainable development. Sustainable development as a concept is closely related to social, cultural, and environmental conditions [2]. The Brundtland report defines sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” [3]. According to Diesendorf [4], this definition emphasizes the long-term aspect of the concept of sustainability and presents the ethical principle of achieving equality between current and future generations. She did not mention the natural environment, focusing only on their needs or desires. However, the report clearly states that these “needs” include the protection of the natural environment. Recently, a broad definition has been given that conveys that there are three main dimensions: environmental, economic and social [5]. In studying and learning about sustainability, the environmental dimension refers to the natural environment which includes all organisms, resources and systems that support life. Its mission is protection. Economic status consists of employment and income, and its purpose is adequate development. A social model consists of people living together. Its mission is peace, equality and human rights. In addition to these three dimensions, there is also a fourth political dimension. It refers to politics, policy and decision-making which is the goal of democracy [5]. Environmental issues are important for biology education, for example, in Finland, Sweden and Denmark, they form the core of the biology curriculum in primary education. All biology curricula emphasize different biology and ecosystems, the life cycle of plants and animals, and life-sustaining processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration and life, but do not mention other dimensions of sustainability [6, 7, 8]. Therefore, we emphasize the environmental aspect of this study. Our aim is to identify and describe effective teaching methods for biological education and sustainability education (SE) including outdoor education (OE) to promote sustainability in primary and secondary schools and teacher education. As far as we know, there are no previous studies in these areas.

A debate that has continued for the past thirty years has been how the role of education should be considered when creating sustainability and a sustainable future. Sustainability and sustainable future are understood here for the purposes of sustainability. The relationship between environmental education, education for sustainability, and education for sustainability is discussed. Environmental education and sustainable development education are interpreted in different ways around the world, depending on the context [9]. Some authors argue that education for sustainability is part of environmental education [10] or the theory of environmental education [11], or that environmental education has evolved into education for sustainable development [12]. In Agenda 21, it is stated that environmental education is a continuous, lifelong learning process to promote social awareness and action at global, national and local levels wherever people affect the environment [13] . An important distinction between the objectives of environmental education was made by Lucas [14] – “within”, “about” or “of” the environment – to avoid misunderstandings about the nature of environmental education.

According to UNESCO [15], education for sustainable development is about enabling people to constructively and creatively address current and future global challenges and create sustainable and resilient societies. Learning about education for sustainable development often includes knowledge, values ​​and perspectives related to sustainable development. However, it also means “learning to ask important questions; learning to articulate one’s values; learning to envision a better and sustainable future; learning to think systematically; learning to respond through applied learning; and learning to explore the dialectic between culture and creativity” [13] Thus it provides students with a context for the development of active citizenship and participation, embracing the complexity of the interdependence of ecological, social and economic systems [16] The general goal of the decade of the United Nations on Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) was to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainability in all fields of education and training [17] In Finland, sustainability is included in the basic educational curriculum of all levels of education. that this was done is described in detail in another article in this special issue [18].

Why Science Education Is More Important Than Most Scientists Think

Sustainable development education is again based specifically on ecology and ecology and focuses on the interaction between ecosystems and society. It encourages students to think seriously about the concepts of sustainable development and the values ​​that underlie them, and to create solutions to achieve practical goals in various unpredictable situations [19].

As mentioned above, and environmental education, sustainable education, and sustainable education share the vision of quality education and a society that lives in balance with the power of the earth. They therefore integrate and represent all aspects of sustainable development. In this study, we use the term sustainability education (SE) [20] because it covers all types of environmental education, sustainability education, and sustainability education.

Many topics in biology education are closely related to SE content. These types exist mostly in the areas of ecology, ecology, conservation and systems biology. According to Palmberg et al. [21], the ability to identify species is important for a better understanding of biodiversity and issues related to the environment and its sustainability, not only for the understanding of certain branches of biology (eg, ecology, evolution, genetics). However, taxation is often a forgotten area of ​​the school curriculum. Biological phenomena linked to socio-cultural issues, such as climate change, require an integrated and integrated approach to better teaching and learning. When biology education is provided in relation to SE, teaching methods such as experiential, collaborative, process-based and experimental learning and problem-based and computer-assisted methods can be effective.

To achieve SD goals, active learning methods such as process-based learning, problem-based learning and OE are recommended by several researchers [ 19 , 22 , 23 ]. Process-based teaching focuses on developing students’ independence in learning and problem-solving by providing an actionable curriculum that can be assigned [24]. In problem-based learning, students use “triggers” of a

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