Methods Of Teaching Geography In Secondary Schools

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Methods Of Teaching Geography In Secondary Schools

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Received: 24 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019

Understanding and acquiring geographic knowledge and its application to sustainable development (SD) depends not only on the knowledge itself, but also on how it is taught and studied. Teaching and learning methods that promote the sustainability of geography have not been thoroughly explored. This qualitative study examined articles on teaching geography and SD. The material was selected using keywords related to geographic education. The study describes 17 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2008 and 2018. The focus group ranged from primary to higher education. We determined the ratio of teaching and learning methods. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis focused on teaching and learning methods, topics, objectives and levels of thinking skills. In addition, they examined the characteristics of teaching methods used in geography education, including nature education, to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Different teaching methods used together and interactive learning were most preferred. Group work and teacher lectures were mentioned in 12 articles, and inquiry-based learning and reasoning were mentioned in half of the articles. In geography education, the most common written expressions promoting sustainable development were environmental sustainability (42%), followed by social (25%), economic (19%) and cultural sustainability (14%). Active participation, thinking skills, animation, assessment, dialogue, demonstrations and information and communication technology skills were the most prominent features of current teaching methods. A whole school approach and a forward-looking geography perspective must be introduced into school education to achieve the SDGs and support sustainable development.

History And Geography In The Classroom

The International Charter on Geographical Education defines geography as “the study of the Earth and its natural, physical and human environment” [1]. Geography involves the study of human activities and their interactions and interactions with the environment at local and global levels. It bridges the natural and social sciences, dealing with spatial variability, i.e. the fact that phenomena, events and processes change within and between places, therefore it should be considered an indispensable part of the education of every citizen in every society. The geographical foundations mentioned above can be considered to support sustainability education (SE). According to Day and Spronken-Smith [2], interdisciplinary approaches that integrate three aspects – economic, social and physical aspects of sustainability – are not only well suited to geography, but also remain a prerequisite for understanding its multiple dimensions.

The basic concepts of geographic education are space, place, landscape and sustainability [3]. In addition, sustainability can be understood as a basic geographical concept and as an interdisciplinary topic. In SE, sustainable development (SD) practices can create holistic experiences of philosophical, theoretical and practical issues of sustainability. Examples of the latter are forest schools [4], learning outside the classroom [5] and many creative approaches to education [6].

Education is considered a key strategy for achieving sustainable development. Global education and SE can help students develop their critical thinking skills and values, and to understand a globalized and interdependent world and their own rights and responsibilities to each other and to the planet. These are human geography topics that students must understand if they are to achieve these geography goals. Environmental concerns caused by environmental problems have increased the demand for SE. For their part, decision makers must promote citizens’ commitment to the environment and “ecological literacy” [7, 8, 9]. According to McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie [10], environmental literacy frameworks emphasize a systems perspective, which involves identifying the various biophysical and social components in a given environmental context and distinguishing their interactions. An ecologically literate individual clearly perceives and understands the dynamics and discontinuities of the system, as well as its past and alternative future trajectories. They understand the complexity of the subjects and phenomena they examine and thus enable better decision-making. Higher order thinking skills, such as systems thinking, can be developed through, for example, place-based education (PBE) [11].

According to Woodhouse and Knapp [12], PBE refers to community schooling, environmental education and bioregional education. Stone [13] argued that PBE is fundamental to sustainability education and that sustainability must be holistic. He also argued that famous and beloved places are most likely to be protected and preserved for future generations.

The Truth About Teacher Pay

In geography, teaching SD does not only depend on quality knowledge of the subject, but also on modern, researched knowledge of pedagogical content, which means the teacher’s interpretation and transformation of subject knowledge in the context of encouraging student learning [14]. However, the teaching and learning methods associated with geography SD education have not been extensively studied. This study fills this research gap. The aim of the study was to find the most supported teaching and learning methods that promote sustainability.

Many geographers are critical of the concepts of environmental education (EE), education for sustainable development (ESD) and sustainable development education (SDE) [15, 16, 17]. The definition of terms varies depending on the context [18]. According to Lucas [19], EE is a lifelong learning process aimed at increasing environmental awareness and promoting local, regional and global environmental activities [20]. According to UNESCO [21], ESD aims to make people aware of current and future environmental problems and challenges and to create more sustainable and resilient societies. SDE, for its part, examines the interaction between ecological and social systems with the aim of developing solutions for various unexpected situations [22]. All three are aimed at quality education and a society that takes into account the carrying capacity of the world [23]. Therefore, they can be considered to include all dimensions of SD. In this study, we use the term sustainable education (SE) [24] because it can be considered to include all forms of EE, ESD and SDE.

In his study, Pauw [25] described the societies of the future as rapidly changing, interconnected, interdependent, competitive, individualized and knowledge intensive. Geography and sustainability education offer a way of understanding an increasingly complex and uncertain world. Order, uncertainty, crisis and chaos can be predicted based on geographic data. The tradition of geography in the field of the human environment provides a methodological basis for addressing sustainability issues, as well as geographic approaches that include dynamics, complexity and interactions, which support an understanding of the spatio-temporal dimensions of sustainability. In addition, with its interdisciplinary approach, geography bridges social and natural sciences [15]. Geographic education develops knowledge, skills and concepts that help us to better understand our being, our relationships with other people and the universe [26]. Thus, geographic awareness and geographic awareness are also important goals in DK, cf. [27].

The International Charter for Geographical Education [1] states that the study of geography should support young people in understanding and appreciating how places and landscapes are formed, how people and the environment interact, what consequences our everyday spatial decisions have, and the Earth’s diversity and each other. connected mosaic. cultures and societies. According to Haubrich [28], achieving sustainable development requires geographic competencies such as knowledge and understanding of the main natural systems of the Earth (relief form, soil, water bodies, climate, vegetation), as well as the interaction within and between ecosystems, as well as the main social conditions. – economic systems of the Earth (agriculture, settlements, transport, industry, trade, energy, population, etc.).

Ways To Keep Your Class Interesting

Valuable geographical skills mean the ability to communicate, think and use practical and social skills on a wide range of geographical topics, from local to international. In addition, attitudes and values ​​aimed at solving local, regional, national and international problems are essential based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [28, 29]. Moreover,

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