**Ratio Analysis Of Financial Statements Example** – In our previous article (Part 1 of 2), we gave an overview of the company’s balance sheet. In this article (part 2 of 2), we consider important balance sheet ratios.

The debt-to-equity ratio is calculated by dividing total borrowings by total equity. This ratio determines what percentage of business assets the company owns versus the lending institution.

## Ratio Analysis Of Financial Statements Example

On the balance sheet, the 2021 debt-to-equity ratio will be 1.33:1, or $200,000 over $150,000. This ratio shows that for every dollar of equity, the company has $1.33 of total debt.

## Common Size Analysis Of Financial Statements

How much leverage is too much? It depends on the historical performance and the performance of the assets under management. And, from a comparative perspective, it is also useful to understand the industry and/or sector in which a company operates.

A company acting as an office wholesaler may have limited bank credit, while a hosiery wholesaler or mill may have significant debt attached and necessary for its operations.

Liquidity ratios measure a company’s short-term ability to pay maturing obligations and unexpected cash needs. Balance sheet liquidity ratios include current ratio and quick ratio.

A position closely related to the current ratio is working capital, which is total current assets minus current liabilities. Working capital shows how much current assets are more or less than current liabilities.

### Chapter 17: Financial Statement And Ratio Analysis

The current ratio expresses the relationship of current assets to current liabilities, dividing current assets by current liabilities.

$295,000 divided by $160,000 or 1.84:1 as of December 31, 2021. This means that for every dollar of current liabilities, the company has $1.84 of current assets.

The current ratio is a measure of liquidity, but does not take into account the composition of current assets. For example, it will not identify slow-moving inventory or slow-converting accounts receivable.

A positive working capital position and current ratio are preferred. As mentioned, asset composition is sometimes an important factor when assessing liquidity.

### Reporting A Balance Sheet And A Statement Of Cash Flows

A negative working capital or current ratio indicates that a company may have a difficult time paying off maturing obligations.

Another liquidity ratio is the quick ratio, calculated by taking cash, marketable securities, and dividing it by accounts receivable and current liabilities.

A quick ratio for December 31, 2021 would be $90,000 and $200,000 of cash in accounts receivable, divided by current liabilities of $160,000, equal to 1.81:1.

Depending on how a company operates and the composition of its current assets, less than one relationship to current liabilities is quite possible.

#### Synopsis Ratio Analysis

The value of quick ratio is that it shows cash and assets that can be converted into cash in about 30 to 90 days.

In most cases, the quick ratio will be smaller than the current ratio, depending on what each is responsible for. Comparing the two ratios is also an important step—it provides some context and an indication of financial trends.

, 2020 current and quick ratios are 1.78:1 and 1.74:1 respectively. Each liquidity ratio in 2021 is higher than the 2020 ratio, indicating a positive direction. If the company performs efficiently with such ratios in 2020, it is reasonable to assume that it has performed consistently or better in 2021. Now that you know how financial statements are prepared, let’s look at how they are used to help owners, managers, investors and creditors evaluate a company’s performance and financial strength. You can glean a lot of information from financial statements, but first you need to learn some basic principles to “unlock” it.

Let’s fast forward again and assume that your business—The College Store—has just completed its second year of operation. After creating your two year income statement, you decide to compare the numbers from this statement to your first statement. So you prepare a comparative income statement. A financial statement showing income over one year. Figure 12.19 “Comparative Income Statement for College Store,” which shows income figures for year 2 and year 1 (in the inner column accountants usually put the numbers for the most recent year).

#### Here Are All Five Parts Of Our Series On How To Analyze An Earnings Report

What does this statement tell us about your second year in business? Some things look good and some don’t. Your sales increased from $500,000 to $600,000 (a 20 percent increase — not bad). But your profit drops—from $30,000 to $18,000 (a bad sign). When you look at the statement, you ask yourself: Why did my profit decrease even though my sales increased? Are these results meaningful? Is there a way to compare the two income statements that will give me a more helpful view of my company’s financial health? One method called vertical percentage analysis is an analysis of an income statement that considers the relationship of each item to a percentage of a base (usually sales). . It is useful because it expresses the relationship of each item on the income statement to a specific base—usually sales—by expressing each item as a percentage of that base.

Figure 12.20 “Comparative Income Statement Using Vertical Percentage Analysis” shows what a comparative income statement looks like when you use vertical percentage analysis to show each item as a percentage of sales. Let’s see if this helps clear things up. What do you think is the reason why The College Shop’s sales increased but the company’s revenue decreased?

Percentages help you analyze changes in income items over time, but it can be easier if you think of percentages as percentages. In 1 year, for example, for every $1.00 in sales, $0.55 went to pay for the products you sold, leaving $0.45 to cover your other expenses and your profit. Operating expenses (salaries, rent, advertising, etc.) used $0.35 of every $1.00 in sales, while interest and taxes each took $0.02. After you cover all your expenses, you have a profit of $0.06 for every $1.00 in sales.

. Instead of using $0.55 of every $1.00 in sales to buy products you sell, you used $0.64. As a result, you had $0.09 less ($0.64 – $0.55) to cover other expenses. This is the main reason why you weren’t as profitable in year 2 as you were in year 1: your

## Vertical Analysis (%)

Was lower in 2 years than in 1 year. While this information doesn’t give you all the answers you want, it does raise some interesting questions. Why should there be a change in the relationship?

? Did you have to pay more to buy the product for resale, and if so, were you unable to increase your selling price to cover the additional cost? Did you have to lower prices to remove merchandise that didn’t sell well? (If your costs stay the same but your selling price goes down, you make less for each item sold.) The answers to these questions require more analysis, but at least you know what the useful questions are.

Vertical percentage analysis helps you analyze the relationship between items on your income statement. But how do you compare your financial results to other companies in your industry or to the industry as a whole? And what about your balance? Are there relationships in this statement that are worth investigating? Should you further examine the relationship between the items on your income statement and the items on your balance sheet? These issues can be investigated using a ratio analysis technique for financial analysis that shows the relationship between two numbers. , a technique for evaluating a company’s financial performance.

When just one number is divided by another, the result expresses the relationship between the two numbers. Let’s say, for example, you want to know the relationship between the cost of going to the movies and the cost of renting a DVD movie. You can calculate the following:

#### Financial Ratio Analysis: Definition, Types And Interpretation

Ratio analysis is used to evaluate a company’s performance over time and to compare a company with similar companies or with the overall industry in which it operates. You won’t learn much from just one ratio, or even a few ratios covering the same time period. Rather, the value of ratio analysis is in looking

Ratios over time and compares ratios over several periods to competitors and the industry as a whole. There are a few different ways to classify financial ratios. There is only one category:

Using each of these categories, we can find dozens of different ratios, but we will focus on a few examples.

Of each item in the College Shop income statement. We checked gross profit when we found it

### Ratio And Financial Statement Analysis

And that, in year 2, it drops to 36 percent. We can express the same relationship as a ratio:

We see that the gross profit margin has decreased (a situation that, as we’ve learned before, is probably not good). But how can you tell if your gross profit margin for 2 years is right for your company? First, we can use it to compare college shop results with industry results. When we compare this, we find that the specialty retail industry (where your company operates) reports an average profit margin of 41 percent. For 1 year, therefore, we had a higher ratio than the industry; In year 2,

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